There are some fundamental questions that humans have been grappling with since we have developed the ability to reason. These questions deal with the nature of our existence. For instance: Where do we come from? Why are we here? Does the universe have a creator? What is our place in the universe? Is there life after death? What is the nature of reality?
These and other related questions have often been called the big questions. And they have been addressed in various ways, from the dawn of civilization, throughout the ages to modern times. Religions, myths, rituals, celebrations, and even architecture have been built as a response to these questions. Some fields of science have also responded to the big questions. In order to form a view of reality, one will usually have to contemplate some of these questions. Therefore, our answers to these questions play a major role in determining how we see the world.
Although many people may not be consciously aware of their picture of reality, at least not on a daily basis, I believe that the majority of people have some form of picture in the back of their minds. We accept things as facts without regularly thinking about it. For example, we know that gravity keeps us from flying off the earth, and an object thrown in the air will fall down. We know it to the extent that we don’t even think about it. This is a simple example; however, I believe we respond in similar ways on the more complex questions. At different points in our lives we arrive at conclusions to some of these questions, and consequently, it forms our view of reality.
Our view is usually composed of things we know as facts, things we believe by faith, and things we accept as unknown or unknowable. The degree to which each aspect is present varies with the individual. This view of reality is determined over a long period of time, and in segments, eventually creating a whole. It is internalized and we go on with our lives. Some seldom question their view, while others are aware that their view is subject to change. If we were to question and examine our view of reality, would it stand up to reason? Would it form a cohesive whole? Would one part contradict another? Would we have properly separated the knowable from the unknowable? And how would faith factor into the equation?
There are many factors that contribute to establishing our picture. We are influenced by family, friends, society, religion, and life experiences. Genetics also likely plays a role. However, it ultimately comes down to how we interpret the world that we observe and experience. In our modern world we can draw a great deal of insight from science. It is an advantage that no other civilization in history would have had, at least not to the extent we have today.
In ancient times, people were limited to the observable world, lacking the knowledge of modern science. They would have observed the world around them, and drawn conclusions based on their observations. They were actually using a simplified form of the scientific method; however, it was significantly more primitive. The ancients must have intuitively understood the world in which they were living. Although they would not have been able to calculate precisely how things worked, they must have known what they needed to survive. Their understanding of the world would have been deeply rooted in nature. They would have felt a deep connection with their environment. The soil and the plants, the rivers and the oceans, and the sun and the stars may well have been recognized and celebrated as their life source.
The ancient civilizations were in tune with the natural cycles, and much of their lives were governed by these cycles. Archaeologists have found clear evidence at a number of sites that support this claim. For instance, Stonehenge and the Pyramids at Giza (which includes the Great Sphinx) are precisely positioned in accordance with solar alignments at specific times of the year. We could question the ancient interpretation of the natural world without science to guide them, but their devotion to nature was evident.
In our modern industrialized world, many people have lost this profound relationship with nature—an unintended consequence of modernization. The daily life of many individuals in the developed world has little direct contact with nature. The population is densely congregated to large cities, where one finds predominantly concrete streets and buildings, instead of green pastures, forests and wildlife. Even for those that live in rural areas, lifestyles are somewhat similar. We travel mostly in vehicles, and move from building to building. We purchase our food at grocery stores, and purchase other material items at department stores. As far as where the goods come from, we don’t have to give it a second thought. Although industrialization and technology have eased many of life’s burdens, improved quality of life and increased longevity, it has come with a cost. The obvious environmental costs are evident, but the more subtle effects of the disconnection that humans have with nature are just as profound.
In order to properly understand and internalize reality, we need to incorporate nature, and find a balance between experience and knowledge. Both the methods of modern science and the ancients are available for us today. The fields of science give us a factual or logical understanding of reality, but the meaning would be diminished without the experience. In some situations, the information from our sensory perceptions aligns directly with empirical scientific knowledge. The example of gravity, which I provided earlier, demonstrates this point. One can understand the laws of gravity, and also experience its effects in a personal way, such as observing the trajectory of a ball that is thrown in the air.
In other situations, where the facts contradict our direct experience, it becomes a little more problematic. The experience of day and night is a prime example of this. It appears to us that the earth is stationary, and that the sun is moving from the eastern to the western horizon, however, the scientific explanation is very different. Science explains that the earth rotates once in twenty-four hours, thus causing day and night; the sun doesn’t move across the sky. Nevertheless, when it is explained to us from a scientific perspective, we can easily make sense of the experience. We can integrate both a logical and intuitive understanding of the reality of day and night. Similarly, many other natural rhythms can be interpreted by experience, or explained by scientific reasoning.
It becomes a little more difficult when we are dealing with phenomena that lie mostly beyond the scope of our senses, such as the very large structures of the universe or the microscopic realm. We are then left to choose between science and our sensory perceptions. But if we choose to trust the science, we can somewhat imagine what the experience would be like.
Science is addressing the big questions, though somewhat indirectly, in ways that previous generations could not have imagined. In the last century, scientific discoveries have completely changed the picture of the cosmos. Human sense of place in the universe is being reevaluated. The big questions can no longer be dealt with solely by ancient methods. Although it is vital that we retain some of the ancient wisdoms, science can lead the modern search for truth. The universe, which was once thought to be beyond human understanding, is being revealed by modern science. Albert Einstein clearly realized this. He is quoted by Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow in The Grand Design: “The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is that it is comprehensible.”
Although there are few absolute proofs, or unquestionable truths regarding the big questions, the universe has left many clues that point to its nature. As a human race we are getting closer to understanding the nature of our existence. We have the opportunity to create a picture of reality that is in line with the natural world, and ultimately the universe. I believe that collectively and individually it is one of our most important challenges. Since our view of reality forms the foundation for our lives, the challenge is well worth taking. On this note, I have to agree with the Greek philosopher Socrates when he said, “The unexamined life is not worth living.”
References: Stephen W. Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow, The Grand Design (New York: Bantam Books, 2010), 87.