In many respects planet Earth is a rare and unique place. This is partly due to the abundance of nature. There is abundant opportunity, quantity and diversity, as well as abundant time and space. No matter where we look, we will find that things come in large quantities. There is rarely just one of anything in nature; if there is, it probably won’t last for very long.
For our convenience, we separate and categorize the components of nature. Inanimate substances and living things make up two large categories, which are broken down into smaller subgroups. This is useful for us, but in reality the Earth is a living planet. What we consider as inanimate is shared and circulated to maintain all life on earth. For example: soil, water, air and sunlight are part of the living world (in a roundabout way).
Natural Selection and Exponential Growth
Natural selection, Darwin’s term for nature’s sorting process, has a subtle implication; similar patterns and forms are repeated over and over again. This is an unavoidable consequence of natural selection. In order for environmental conditions to serve as a shaping force, it must be favorable for numerous life forms. If only a few individuals are favored, then randomness necessitates that their genes will not be passed on in the long term. On the other hand, when selection acts positively on large numbers (of genes, individuals, groups or species), then the odds are high that they will prosper.
Success from an evolutionary standpoint means survival and replication. There is a constant competition for resources; there are always winners and losers. Once something gains an upper hand, exponential growth will lead to an abundance of that particular life form. It is similar to compound interest in a bank account. Of course, abundance does not entail permanent growth. All species will eventually decline or become extinct due to ever-changing conditions. Nevertheless, when anything survives the process it will do so in large numbers, otherwise it would not be here.
For example, if favorable conditions (such as a plentiful food supply, lack of predators and a temperate climate) are present for a particular species, then the numbers will likely grow. This may at some point lead to overpopulation and stress the survival needs of the species, which can create an opportunity for competing species. The growth of species will usually fluctuate; but most of the time a balance will develop, somewhat like the swinging of a pendulum. In the end the diversity of life will almost ensure that life as a whole will be plentiful.
Self-Organization, Order and Randomness
Both the living and non-living world has the ability to self-organize. That can partially explain how order emerges from a random and chaotic world. The process of self-organization in nature is messy, nothing like we organize our daily lives. With humans there is usually a clear direction or purpose when we make plans. But not all the time; humans also self-organize when groups of people act in a similar way, even if no one is in control.
In nature, the terms trial and error best describes how order and structure arises. There is a role for both order and randomness in this process. The order allows for stability, the random component creates opportunities for change. For example, if we think of how seeds from plants are dispersed, we can see that they fall to the ground in irregular patterns. There is no reason why any seed will come into contact with fertile soil. In fact, the majority of seeds will be wasted. Still, within each seed contains the information necessary to produce the plant. And due to the abundant production of seeds, by random factors alone some seeds will find a prosperous location.
For instance, a mature tree can produce thousands of seeds, and yet, only a tiny fraction of those seeds will become trees. Looking at this process from an individual seed, it seems that the survival chance of a seed is extremely low. But if we account for all the seeds of a tree, there are bound to be seeds that are deposited in just the right location. This is just one example of many similar situations where the abundance of nature assures that life will go on and flourish.
The Goldilocks Zone
The term Goldilocks Zone is often used to identify the location of the Earth. The idea being that our planet is just the right distance from the sun to support life. The Earth’s location allows for a narrow band of temperature variations (in relation to the universe), a range that can provide liquid water. For water to exist it cannot be too hot or too cold. For life as we know it to exist, liquid water is an absolute must.
At first glance the Earth’s precise location seems highly improbable; however, like the seeds from a tree, there are huge numbers of planets that can’t support life. Hundreds of planets outside our solar system have been discovered, and there are surely countless more. Thus far only a few exoplanets (planets outside our solar system) could be considered as earth like. Out of over 1800 that have already been found, most cannot support life as we know it.
Goldilocks Zones are applicable to situations on earth as well. All life is sustained by a narrow range of conditions. However, because nature allows for abundant opportunity, quantity and diversity something will always find the right location (or conditions). Clearly, from any perspective, there is abundance of every kind. This is what we observe when we examine the natural world. That is why in the grand scheme of things, nature always flourishes.